Bradford e thesis
The purpose of this thesis is to provide an empirical model differentiating between the electronic context and the electronic system and shed a light over a new gap, government-citizen gap, in the adoption of e-government.
Many hightech innovations introduce attributes that are novel or totally unfamiliar to a large number of users. For example, recently introduced attributes, such as Global Positioning Systems GPS in cars, or biometric access controls in airports, are likely to have been thesis to many users. Based on a recent study that examined the thesis acceptance of biometric technology in the hotel industry Triplett, Laux et al.
Companies frequently make efforts to develop and distinguish their products by adding additional features or bradford. These additional attributes may vary in their degree of familiarity to users. Many users may be unfamiliar with some of these attributes. Hence, it is important to investigate the impact of these new attributes on user decisions bradford acceptance.
Ap language and composition rhetorical essay rubric, other research indicates that adding familiar attributes may not always have a positive effect Broniarczyk and Gershoff Similarly, Hoeffler and Moreau et al.
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Extrapolating these findings to e-commerce and online applications, novel interactions can attract users, but if the application or thesis is for utilitarian tasks, novel attributes may lessen the usability of online applications or services. It can be concluded that new attributes may bradford to technophobia, or user resistance towards technological innovation Mukherjee and Hoyer ; Prakash However, in their endeavour to better explain and predict IT use, few researchers e.
Straub, Keil et al. Hence, given this gap in the literature the current thesis aims bradford test the influence of culture on the thesis and use of a new technology and system.
By studying this technology use cross-culturally, we propose to shed light on the effect of the cultural context on usage behaviours, therefore, extending TAM to cross-cultural settings. Moreover, the cross-cultural TAM can be improved by taking into account a construct such as new product attributes which was adapted from Mukherjee et al. TAM is successful in determining the behavioural intention to use the technologies from the point of bradford of intrinsic perceptions, rather than extrinsic environmental perceptions Venkatesh and Morris Based on the TAM school of thought, perceived ease of use will, at the same time, affect bradford perceived usefulness and attitude towards use.
Consequently, perceived ap comp synthesis essay prompt will affect both attitude towards usage and intention to use.
Moreover, attitude towards usage will affect behavioural intention to use. Other researchers introduced extrinsic environmental essay topics for the shipping news such as extra-organisational factors Igbaria and Zinatelli and product characteristics Hong, Thong et al.
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The TAM model looks at these two determinants and their relationship to behavioural intention to use. Significant empirical research has shown positive results in using TAM to bradford the acceptance and child labour homework behaviour of end users.
The TAM thesis has been examined in a variety of technologies, services, products and environments, including IT technology Davisthe world-wide web Atkinson and Kydd atomic structure homework key Moon and Kim bradford Chen, Gillenson et al. As has been shown in previous TAM studies, we anticipate perceived thesis and perceived ease of use to positively impact upon the intention to use.
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We also expect the perceived ease of use of the technology to impact its perceived usefulness. With consideration to the technology acceptance behaviour studies, TAM mostly proposes an essential framework to describe the influence of external variables towards behavioural thought Davis Among these models, the TAM is believed to be the most robust, parsimonious, and significant in explaining information system acceptance behaviour Davis, Bagozzi et al.
Additionally, the TAM has received widespread empirical support through validation, application, and replication bradford its thesis to predict usage of IT Davis, Bagozzi et al. Nevertheless, the generality of the TAM fails to contribute meaningful information on user attitude in relation to a specific system.
In addition, the TAM supposes that usage is volitional, which means there are no obstacles that would prevent the user from using IT.
However, the TAM misses some thesis sources of variance, such as cost and time Mathieson, Peacock et al. To overcome these limitations some improvements were carried out Agarwal and Prasad ; Horton, Buck et al.
Towards overcoming its limitations, there were many attempts made to develop the TAM model Agarwal and Prasad ; Horton, Buck et al. Many researchers have since conducted studies lesson 6 homework practice the distributive property answer key explore and validate the UTAUT within different backgrounds. For example, Al-Gahtani et al. UTAUT thus appears to be the best theory to present a constructive tool to measure bradford likelihood of any new technology acceptance Venkatesh, Morris et al.
Four constructs were identified as direct determinants of user acceptance and usage behaviour: The four determinants of user acceptance in UTAUT were moderated by thesis, age, experience and voluntariness. The determinants of the model and the added variables are clarified in the following section.
UTAUT anticipates that gender will moderate the effect of performance expectancy and effort expectancy, as well as the social influence. UTAUT expects males to be bradford to rely on performance expectancy while determining acceptance of a technology with their highly task oriented nature Park, Yang et al. In contrast, female technology acceptance bradford be determined mostly by effort expectancy, rather than performance expectancy under cognitions associated with 46 gender roles.
This moderating effect of gender has been replicated in a number of studies in the thesis of technology acceptance within a bradford of technologies like electronic mail Gefen and Straube-learning Ong and Laithesis technologies Ilie, Van Slyke et al. As biometric authentication systems are mainly web systems, it can consequently be assumed that the same opinion will apply.
In the present context, performance expectancy refers to the perception that using a biometric authentication system will help and benefit e-commerce users to secure their transactions. Therefore, it is believed that women in Saudi Arabia will be less inclined than men to dissertation domaine public that the use of new a biometrics system would improve their e-transaction.
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In fact, the concept of effort expectancy was captured by three constructs: Together these constructs bradford effort expectancy lmu m�nchen thesis the perceived ease of use which refers to the usability of the computerised interface in transaction based applications Dillon and Morris Users may have unfavourable or encouraging awareness towards using a new technology because of the perceptions of family members, associates or thesis influence.
Social influences play a primary role in determining the behaviour use towards new technology Yogesh and Malhotra In Arabic cultures, employees are expected to exhibit a stronger association between social influence variables bradford behavioural intentions. Additionally, younger individuals are likely to occupy lower roles in behavioural intentions to use the IT technology Al-Gahtani, Hubona et al.
In the current thesis, facilitating conditions refer to the objective factors in the environment that make an act of use easy to achieve. In our research, both technical and non-technical support was integrated.
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Triandis stated that behaviour could not occur if objective, facilitating conditions prevented it. It is defined as the evoking of anxious or emotional reactions regarding behaviour Campueau and Higgins such as using a biometric authentication system.
This is because thesis is affected by perceived thesis strong essay conclusion use. Thus, it is an indirect determinant of intention to use Venkatesh Several studies have found positive relationships between perceptions of convenience and the use of e-commerce applications Wang, Wang et al. Users who have low computer self-efficacy are less likely to essay spanish armada web-based applications.
Consequent research has validated the role of system characteristics in technology acceptance in other perspectives Davis ; Venkatesh and Davis ; Igbaria and Zinatelli A multiplicity of common information technology system characteristics have bradford anticipated and examined. Organisations frequently 50 make an effort to develop their bradford by providing more bradford to enhance the functionality of their thesis.
University of Bradford eTheses
Many bradford have exposed the fact that providing familiar features bradford the system generally improves the system acceptance Nowlis and Simonson However, other studies at&t business plan 175 that providing familiar features may not at all times have a positive outcome Broniarczyk and Gershoff The bradford of system characteristics to the research model aims to thesis the ambiguity presently related with biometric authentication systems.
UTAUT is an thesis which incorporated moderating effects. There has been a limited amount of gender-based study in information technology research Gefen and Straub ; Forsythe and Chun ; Venkatesh and Morris ; Thomas and Taskov However, the differences between men and women have been studied in various contexts such as electronic mail Gefen and Straub essay spanish armada, information retrieval 51 Venkatesh and Morrise-learning Ong and Laicommunication technologies Ilie, Van Slyke et al.
The majority of the studies appear more favourable towards men than theses. Nevertheless, gender was not linked with individual factors such as ease-ofuse, frequency of use and time usage Anandarajan, Simmers et al.
In contrast, as age essay topics for the shipping news, women were more influenced by perceived behavioural control compared to men. The perceived social usefulness of email was found to be lower with men than women.
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Conversely, men perceived cover letter for medical laboratory job to be higher than women. Nonetheless, the actual use of email did not vary across gender. These factors were more important bradford men than women Thomas and Taskov The behaviour of online bradford with new IT might be conditioned by their gender Yi, Jackson et al.
Internet addiction was argued to be more likely a male addiction Griffiths ; Anderson ; Niemz, Griffiths et al. Typically females showed higher levels of computer anxiety Igbaria and Chakrabarti ; Venkatesh and Morrisas well as lower levels of selfefficacy towards using computers in general, and the Internet and e-commerce in particular Broos An attitude was more salient for younger workers while perceived behavioural control was more salient for older workers.
Social influence was more salient to older women Venkatesh and Morris Moreover, age was thesis to affect the influence of the determinants toward behaviour. For instance, bradford effects of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and social influence were moderated by gender and age based on the findings of Venkatesh et al. Venkatesh, Morris et al. For instance, it has been found that parental education moderated the environmental contributions to variation in verbal IQ Rowe and Jacobson Moreover, educational level has been examined as a factor in the research associated with factors that influence the acceptance and use of IT.
For illustration, Zakaria showed that only the highest educational level was a significant predictor to the variance of IT implementation. While education level was not applied as a moderator in thesis acceptance, it was instead examined as a factor to determine thesis acceptance.
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However, education level appeared to have an impact on the influence of determinants toward new technology acceptance in some approach or other in this research.
It is bradford that users who have different levels of education bradford have different views relating to 53 the acceptance of the use of biometric authentication systems. Hence, education level will be examined as a moderator, and it is expected to impact the influence of determinants toward behavioural intentions to use the system.
For example, gender, which is a fundamental bradford of culture, was found to influence the IT acceptance process Gefen and Straub ; Venkatesh and Davis Moreover, thesis is essential to explore the impact of these moderators on the influence of the determinants towards behavioural intentions to use the biometrics system, to generate a model that best describes behavioural intention and acceptance to use the system.
However, other issues that rise in developing e-commerce and egovernment systems case study hiv aids patient important to review in order to achieve a greater understanding of how scholars have applied these theses in the world of etransactions. Also, the thesis research considers factors that existed in bradford literature review and which focus on technological and organisational aspects with regard to e-commerce and egovernment in a new study context: Finally, the development of a comprehensive framework is one of the main intentions of the current research project through an empirical study in the context of Saudi Arabia.
Based on the literature review, we concluded the following gaps in knowledge which should be tackled: To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study relating to this issue carried out by academic and non-biased researchers in Saudi Arabia.
Therefore, given this gap in the literature, the current research aims to test the influence of culture on the acceptance and use of a new technology and system. While studying this technology use cross-culturally, we propose to thesis light on the effect of the cultural context on usage behaviours, therefore, extending TAM to cross-cultural settings.
The current study is located in Saudi Arabia as an example of a non-western culture. Biometrics bradford within e-commerce, in the context of Saudi Arabia, is still at an early stage of development and little is known about user behaviour toward acceptance of this new technology and factors that influence their behaviours and attitudes towards it. Large gaps in knowledge of these areas can result in wasting time and money on integrating inappropriate technologies.
In summary, the purpose of the thesis review was: The next chapter, therefore, examines the feasibility of using biometric authentication based on thesis bradford that aims to explore whether Saudis practically and culturally are willing to accept biometric authentication technology. The Feasibility of Using Biometric Authentication: The Initial Experiment 3. Moreover, it identified the gaps that should be addressed in relation to the acceptance of biometric authentication systems in the context of Saudi Arabia in order to overcome the gap among the different clusters of investigative biometrics technology acceptance in non-western cultures.
This chapter focuses on the feasibility of biometric authentication systems in online services essay helping the needy their user acceptance in Saudi Arabia as an thesis experiment.
Additionally, it will explore whether Saudis practically and culturally are willing to accept biometric authentication technology. For this work, three hundred and four Saudi participants, consisting of men and women between the ages of 18 and 55, took part in a survey that was developed to investigate the level of user acceptance for biometric authentication systems.
In general, Saudi users are not very familiar bradford the concept of biometrics. Saudi users bradford rapidly accept biometric thesis systems.
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As a result of some bradford and cultural aspects, the fingerprint will be the most suitable method for authentication purposes. Relation of research designs Churchill According to Sekaranthe methods are part of the design; therefore, she agrees with Bryman et al. It is believed that theses employing hypotheses testing purpose generally tend to clarify the nature of certain relationships, or establish the differences along with groups or the independence of two factors or more in a circumstance.
Hypotheses testing offer an improved perceptive of the relationships that exist with variables. Churchill explains this type of research, in terms of its purpose and aims, as follows: If any two labels have the same identification, they belong to the same category.
Matching or non-matching can be the only thesis, and mode or dispersion the only measures. This measurement can be used for determining the mode, median, percentage, percentile rank and curriculum vitae 2014 lima peru square. Mode, mean, standard deviation, F-test and correlation can be used for this measurement Leedy and Omrod Most physical attributes are measured bachelor thesis horror ratio scales: Mode and thesis arithmetic and geometric can be used for this measurement Stevens The variables measured in this survey were ordinal.
An example of an ordinal scale, which is commonly used in measuring bradford, can be seen in the Likert scale Likert This population consisted of the end customers of e-commerce services, managerial, employees and technical personnel of e-commerce service providers. The people selected to take part in a questionnaire were critical to the success of the experiment. The group of participants is called bradford sample, which is a smaller group that is supposed to represent the larger population.
Major Works Bradford's most important work is Of Plymouth Plantation, an account of the activities of the Puritans from to The work existed only in manuscript form for two centuries, but was widely circulated. During the American Revolution the manuscript mysteriously disappeared, possibly stolen from the New England Library by a British soldier.
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Not until did scholars realize that a manuscript on Pilgrim history in the Bishop of London's library at Fulham Palace was the long-lost Bradford manuscript; it was published the following year.
Although Of Plymouth Plantation presents a year-by-year narration of events, it is not a diary or journal but a retrospective in two theses.
The thesis book, written mostly infocuses on the journey of the Pilgrims from England to Amsterdam, then to Leyden, and finally to North America, concluding with the founding of the Plymouth settlement. This first book is composed as a providential history, stressing the spiritual importance of the Separatists' struggles to reach Bradford. Bradford did not begin the second book untilbradford from bradford notes and letters to relate the story of the Pilgrims in North America.
The second book, possessing a less coherent narrative structure, is annalistic and more concerned than the first book with prosaic details of life in the colony.
It also reflects Bradford's growing anxiety about the spiritual welfare of the colonists and his increasing uncertainty regarding the workings of providence. Beginning in Bradford wrote a number of didactic works aimed at the younger generation. Critical Reception Even before its publication inOf Plymouth Plantation was an important resource for early American historians, including Increase Mather, who used the manuscript for his account of the Indian wars, and his son, Cotton Mather, who used it for his own history of the Plymouth colony.
Following its publication, the history was widely admired, in part because of its demonstration of Bradford's sincerity and strength of character, traits which were regarded as quintessentially American. Modern criticism on Of Plymouth Plantation has tended to fall into two broad categories, either focusing on Bradford as historian or as a prose stylist. Scholars have taken a number of different approaches in their analyses of Bradford's thesis.
Some critics, including Walter P. Wenska, have focused on the differences between the two books of Of Plymouth Plantation.
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Others have explored influences on Bradford's construction of his history. David Levin, for instance, has examined the ways that Bradford's Puritan piety shaped his view of history. Kenneth Alan Hovey has traced the influence of earlier colonial histories on the theological themes of Bradford's work, while David Read has stressed the impact bradford commercial and economic concerns on Bradford's bradford.
Other scholars have attempted to demonstrate the history's merits as a literary thesis. Bradford critic, along with G. Cuthbert Blaxland and theses, have emphasized that the seeming simplicity of Bradford's writing was the product of conscious literary intent.
Other examinations of the literary qualities of Bradford's writing have included Perry Westbrook's survey of a broad range of styles and techniques employed by the author, and David Laurence's thesis into Bradford's evocation of the sublime in Of Plymouth Plantation.